So, I went to the restaurant yesterday because it's "pay day." In quotes because... well... you know. We talked. We exchanged words. He told me why he fired me and I told him why I had quit. We talked about the money he owes me, we talked about a few things that led to my employment being terminated, voluntarily or involuntarily; I suppose it depends on your point of view. We came to a compromise. He'll be paying me every day at the end of my shift. He's going to pay what he owes me on Sunday. And I still work there, obviously.
I think the outcome is exactly what I wanted. I made my point, he saw it (everyone on staff, even his "old-timers" were saying hi, asking if I'm coming back, etc), he made his point, and now I still have a job, I'll get my money, and I can continue to comfortably look for something closer to what I want to do. Something with medical benefits, etc.